We all want healthy, beautiful skin. The secret to achieving this is in the youth of your cells. A face care system like RENU Advanced uses redox technology to boost cell renewal and communication, restoring youthful skin.
Redox signaling molecules are created naturally in the body and are vital to the immune system and cellular healing mechanisms. These life-sustaining cellular messengers have been proven to affect health at the genetic level positively.
Renewing Skin Cells
Many environmental exposures, such as UVA, disturb the normal functioning of the skin redox system. The result is an excess production of ROS and other electrophiles, causing significant oxidative damage to skin cells, the activation of inflammatory pathways, and a change in cell proliferation and immune response. This can also lead to apoptosis, necrosis, and accelerated skin carcinogenesis.
Unlike in chemistry, where a parameter such as redox potential (PR) has a defined value and equilibrium range, this phenomenon does not exist in biological environments. This is because redox conditions continuously change in living tissues, and the term PR better describes the dynamic balance between oxidants and reductants.
One of the pivotal redox regulation mechanisms is the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway, which maintains the ever-changing redox status of the skin and sustains the principle of hormesis: low doses of an oxidative driving force are essential and beneficial to the organism. In contrast, high doses cause cellular damage or death. Consequently, redox signaling molecules can support healthy cell function by preventing the accumulation of oxidative damage.
Redox signaling molecules are vital for cellular health and to support a natural anti-aging process. The redox balance between the generation of ROS and their neutralization by AO is critical for maintaining the integrity of the skin cell constituents and the ECM. It is also essential to protect these structures against the harmful effects of oxidative damage, e.g., in intrinsic chronological skin aging and extrinsic photoaging.
Cells are equipped with two redox defense systems: the Trx system (including thioredoxin reductase and NADPH) and the glutathione system (involving NADPH, glutathione reductase, reduced glutathione, and its oxidized form, GSSG). Both of these are major contributors to the cellular AO defense.
The perturbation of redox- and iron homeostasis by solar UVA is a key contributor to the extrinsic photoaging of the skin.
As we know, oxidative damage is an imbalance between the number of oxidants and antioxidants. The most efficient, natural mechanism to combat this occurrence is the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, which regulates the cytoprotective enzymes that maintain skin physiological redox homeostasis (PRH). This important pathway requires an inducible trigger to be activated. Several metabolites of lipid peroxidation, including the nonanal and decanal fatty acid derivatives and the phenolic compounds found in the microbial microbiome, have been proposed as potential inducible activators.
These metabolites act as a mild, moderate stressor, which increases intracellular electrophiles and ROS and increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, and glutathione peroxidase. These enzymes neutralize the excess of harmful oxidants and recycle reducing equivalents to restore the PRH to its normal level. These enzymes also counteract the harmful effects of ROS on cellular signaling and pathogen defense. However, skewed redox balance and impaired ROS detoxification have been linked to the development of inflammatory disorders like psoriasis.
The skin is the first line of defense against various environmental stressors challenging homeostasis chemically and physically. In addition to exogenous environmental factors and skin is continuously exposed to endogenous factors such as mitochondrial respiration, enzyme activities, and inflammatory processes that generate oxidative radicals.
ROS initiates oxidative damage and can result in the peroxidation of many essential amino acids including cysteine, tryptophan, tyrosine, lysine, methionine, and histidine (a process called protein cross-linking). This results in reduced protein function and degradation.
The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) effectively reduces oxidative damage in the skin. Hemin an iron-containing cofactor is involved in skin cytoprotection by forming carbonyl proteins (proto-heme) and biliverdin induction in UV-damaged skin cells. Ultimately, our products deliver a healthy skin redox balance that promotes a brighter and more youthful complexion.